Investing in active transport has a clear positive business case, as demonstrated by the following studies from the Australian Government, UK Government, Transport for London, Price Waterhouse Coopers and ARUP.

Australian Government

The Australian Government Department of Infrastructure and Transport published a discussion paper in 2012, laying out the business case for investment in active transport (LinkPDF).

The economic analysis is summarised in Section 1.1 and detailed in Chapter 3:

Figure 3.1 summarises the factors:

Overall, infrastructure for walking and cycling is both beneficial and inexpensive, compare with other modes of transport:

UK Government

The UK Government Department of Health published an economic assessment of investment in walking and cycling:

The report summary states that investment in walking and cycling delivers a benefit/cost ratio of 13:1, even up to 19:1 in the UK alone.

Transport for London

Transport for London has published a summary pack of the economic benefits of walking and cycling:

Image credit: Transport for London

Including how walking and cycling benefits shopping streets:

Image credit: Transport for London

Price Waterhouse Coopers

Price Waterhouse Coopers prepared a report for the City of Melbourne (link, PDF) showing that every dollar invested in a bicycle infrastructure project returns between $1.30 and $14.

Image credit: City of Melbourne


ARUP prepared a report for Victoria Walks showing that the Victorian state government can boost the economy by investing in walking infrastructure.

Image credit: Victoria Walks
Image credit: Victoria Walks